Many individuals have had tetanus toxoid at different times during their life time for prevention of tetanus infection usually after sustaining an injury. However, Tetanus Toxoid (TT) is given to women of reproductive age to prevent tetanus infection in the newborn. Every woman of reproductive age should have at least two doses during the antenatal period. However, FIVE (5) doses are required to confer a LIFE LONG protection. The schedule is as follows : TT1 First dose TT2 Four weeks after the first dose TT3 Six months after TT2 TT4 One

Low back pain is quite common. Many people suffer from it, hoping to get a permanent solution when it lingers. It can be quite discomforting. It is common in people whose occupations make them subject their back to excessive strain; such as having to lift heavy objects, or having to stand for long periods of time. The pain may originate from the spine and its supporting structures, or it could be from another part of the body which “spreads” to the spine. It may be due to a developmental problem

Urethral (penile) discharge in men is a sexually transmitted infection. Important causes are gonorrhea and chlamydia. Our emphasis in this post would be on gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrheae. Symptoms occur within 7 days of exposure (via sexual contact with an infected individual). The main symptom is that of urethral discharge that is much in quantity and purulent (that is, appearing like pus). A swab of the discharge, along with a urine sample, is necessary for accurate diagnosis. Treatment is with antibiotics, usually parenteral (intramuscular or intravenous). It

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one that affects the immune system. Nigeria has the second highest burden of this in the world. It is not enough to know that your status is negative, but you need to stay negative. These are some steps on how to achieve that: Repeat the test after six months of a suspected exposure, to give room for the window period. The window period is when the body is able to recognise and mount up its own immunity against the virus because of how the virus

In the past one week recent times, we have seen more cases of stroke secondary to high blood pressure within a short space of time. This implies that people are not checking their blood pressure regularly or they are not taking antihypertensive medications as they should, or they have not been checking up with their doctors to know if the medications they are taking are working for them or not. Whatever the case, stroke (cerebrovascular accident) is a serious cause of morbidity and death in our environment. Stroke simply means

Fibroid is a common benign tumor of the uterus (womb), hence the term “uterine fibroid”. It is Common in women > 25 years of age. It is also more common in blacks. Fibroid is rare before the age of onset of menses, and the size tends to reduce at menopause. About 20% of women of reproductive age have one or more fibroid(s) in the womb. However, not everyone has symptoms. Many people only discover its presence when they have to go for an ultrasound scan of the abdomen and/or pelvis

Is your baby really ‘teething’? Parents often attribute the illness of two out of every five children attended to at our children outpatient clinic to the development of a new set of teeth. Well…, A child is expected to begin to grow the first set of teeth from the sixth month of life. However some may delay. Development of teeth is not always the primary reason for children having high grade fever, stooling, vomiting or coughing profusely as people insinuate. The major reason for children, especially those in the tropics

After expressing breast milk, the mother can feed it to the baby right away or save it for later. Fresh breast milk has the highest quality. If the breast milk must be saved, the mother should do the following: 1. Use either a glass or hard plastic container with a large opening and a tight lid to store breast milk. 2. Use a container and a lid that have been boiled for 10 minutes. 3. Write the time and date the milk was expressed on the container before storing. 4.

Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, (coverings of the brain and spinal cord); hence the term cerebrospinal. Typically, the central nervous system (CNS) is well protected by the skull, the meninges and the blood – brain barrier. But when an organism evades these structures, it spreads fast because of lack of defense mechanism within the CNS. Meningitis is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, even protozoa. However, the bacterial meningitis is more lethal because it affects every structure in the CNS (including the nerves, blood vessels, the brain mass, and so

Typically, a ‘cut at vaginal delivery ‘, is referred to medically as EPISIOTOMY. It is one of the things many women fear at a vaginal delivery. When it eventually happens, they are soon faced with the realities of how to take good care of the wound so they can ‘ have their lives back ‘ asap. Some people are advised to sit on HOT WATER, while some are asked to avoid contact with the bowl they sit on, and so on. All of these are WRONG!!! WHAT IS THE RIGHT METHOD

This virus does not exist independently; only in the presence of hepatitis B virus. It gives rise to a more severe form of hepatitis, but is limited by recovery from hepatitis B infection. Transmission: From an infected mother to the baby via the placenta Close contact with an infected person. Prevention: Proper screening of blood and blood products Hepatitis B vaccine protects against hepatitis D infection. Got questions? Consult DoctorKK right here.

This is also a blood-borne infection. It usually takes 8 weeks for liver function abnormalities to occur following exposure to the virus. It causes a long- standing (chronic) infection, and can in turn cause hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). Transmission: Transfusion of unscreened blood Sharing of needles by intravenous drug users Organ transplantation Use of unsterilized needles for dental procedures, tattooing. Prevention: Proper screening of blood donors Use new needles each time, rather than repeating the use of one Do not share needles with anyone Proper sterilization of instruments prior to

This virus infects together with hepatitis C often times. It is more commonly seen in people with some blood disorders such as Hemophilia, Thalassemia. It may be seen in intravenous drug addicts. Prevention This is by preventing hepatitis C virus infection. Got questions? Consult DoctorKK right here.

This is a blood-borne infection. The hepatitis B virus causes a long- standing (chronic) infection. It also gives rise to hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer), which is a notorious cancer that kills within approximately six months of diagnosis. HBV infection is about TEN TIMES more infectious than HIV. Humans are the only source of infection. How is it transmitted? Via any of the following: Transfusion of unscreened blood or blood products From a carrier mother to the baby Sexual intercourse- heterosexual or homosexual Repeated use of hypodermic needles without sterilization; such

This post is a follow up to that of hepatitis A. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection  is not very common in our environment but may be seen in those who have travelled to regions where it is present, such as India, Middle East. It is also spread feco-orally, like hepatitis A virus (HAV). The source of infection is majorly CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER. It is similar to hepatitis A viral infection in presentation. However, if it occurs in pregnancy, it can shut down the liver and result in death. Prevention: Good

Much has been said about hepatitis such that some think that it must be sought and treated while treating malaria in our environment. Well, here are the facts on hepatitis so as to have your doubts cleared. Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Shikena! This can be caused by viruses, alcohol or anything that can harm the liver, including some drugs. We shall focus on viral hepatitis however, being a dreaded form of hepatitis. There are six viruses responsible for hepatitis. These are Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and

…and your cute & beautiful baby finally arrives. YIPPEE!!! CONGRATULATIONS! While one has to be grateful for a safe delivery, I’d like to point out that a lot of attention still has to be paid to the mother’s health, not just the baby’s. The following are danger signs to watch out for in the mum after delivery: Heavy vaginal bleeding Fever Abdominal pain Foul-smelling vaginal discharge Severe headache Eye(visual) disturbances Convulsions If there is hot, red or painful area on the breast. If you notice any of these signs, don’t

The ‘ALMIGHTY’ Labour experience comes with various feelings and emotions. However, talking about danger signs now; here are some signs that may be noticed during labour and/or delivery which are real DANGER signs. They include: Prolonged labour over 12 hours Labour before 37 completed weeks If the woman has been told that the baby is lying in an abnormal position Bleeding from the vagina Fever Foul-smelling vaginal discharge Severe headache and /or visual disturbances Convulsions   If you notice any of the above signs, it is not the time to

The prostate is a vital gland in the male. It secretes fluid that helps to maintain the vitality of the sperm. Prostate cancer is regarded as the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. It is rare before 50 years but its occurrence increases thereafter. The exact cause of prostate cancer, like other cancers, is unknown. However, some risk factors predispose to it. These include: AGE: The older the male, the higher the risk. FAMILY AND GENETIC FACTORS: This depends on the number of family members/ relatives affected and the age

One of the early challenges that a nursing mum faces, mostly first- time mums, is sore or cracked nipples. This is quite common. It happens as a result of poor positioning of the baby, and sometimes, poor attachment to the breast. There is usually some degree of “help” for a nursing mum, especially that coming from “experienced mothers”. Deciding on which advice to follow may also be challenging, hence this post. The aim of this post is to provide tested, proven and accurate solution to these mothers. You want to

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